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We provide

scientific and educational information

on Body Integrity Identity Disorder


If you suspect a patient you are seeing might be affected by BIID, please refer them to our Resources for Individuals.  

 SHARE YOUR STORY ON BIID with us:  click here 




  ICD-11 Definition 


“Body integrity dysphoria is characterised by an intense and persistent desire to become physically disabled in a significant way (e.g. major limb amputee, paraplegic, blind), with onset by early adolescence accompanied by persistent discomfort, or intense feelings of inappropriateness concerning current non-disabled body configuration. The desire to become physically disabled results in harmful consequences, as manifested by either the preoccupation with the desire (including time spent pretending to be disabled) significantly interfering with productivity, with leisure activities, or with social functioning (e.g. person is unwilling to have a close relationships because it would make it difficult to pretend) or by attempts to actually become disabled have resulted in the person putting his or her health or life in significant jeopardy. The disturbance is not better accounted for by another mental, behavioural or neurodevelopmental disorder, by a Disease of the Nervous System or by another medical condition, or by Malingering.”

 Characteristics of BIID 


  • Early-age Onset: BIID typically emerges at a very young age and is often repressed until adulthood at which point it can consume someone’s thoughts
  • Overwhelming Desire: BIID typically presents itself as an intense feeling that can take over a person’s life causing difficulties in socialising and functioning in everyday life
  • Dissociation of Limb or Sense: Rather than believing their extremity is ugly or deformed, people with BIID have reported that they instead believe it does not belong to their body (this also applies to senses) and can be described as feeling like ‘growing an extra limb’.
  • Non-delusional: There are no associations between delusions and BIID. Typically, a person with BIID has no false beliefs regarding their desire to be disabled coming from an external force. It is an internal belief that they would be complete after achieving their desired body.
  • Location of Desired Amputation Remains Consistent: In a case of BIID, a person can usually draw a line at the exact location of where their limb ends in their personal body map and this does not change. If this is not the case and the location changes, or a person doesn’t always want their extremity removed, there is a possibility for an alternative diagnosis such as schizophrenia.
  • Self-amputation Behaviours: Often, people with BIID will have thought about or attempted a self-amputation/mutilation of the unwanted limb/sense. It is not uncommon for a person with BIID to purposefully damage their limb beyond repair in hopes of receiving a surgical removal.
  • No Family History: There are no definite hereditary factors or increased likelihood if there is a family history of psychiatric disorders.

This list has been compiled using ‘Desire for amputation of a limb: paraphilia, psychosis, or a new type of identity disorder’ by (First MB, 2005), 'Apotemnophilia or Body Integrity Identity Disorder: A Case Report Review' (Bou Khalil R, Richa, S, 2012) & 'Body integrity identity disorder: the persistent desire to acquire a physical disability' (First MB, Fisher CE, 2012).



If you suspect a patient you are seeing might be affected by BIID, please refer them to our Resources for Individuals.  

 SHARE YOUR STORY ON BIID with us:  click here 


DISCLAIMER: The information presented on this website is not to be considered medical advice and is not to replace consultation with qualified professionals. Please do not use the information on this website to self-diagnose.